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去看看巴控Kashmir

发表时间:2021-11-23
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The Kashmir is called the heaven on earth. Irish poet Thomas Moore's 1817 romantic poem Lalla  Rookh is credited with having made Kashmir (spelt Cashmere in the poem) "a household term in  Anglophone (English speaking) societies", conveying the idea that it was a kind of paradise (an  old idea going back to Hindu and Buddhist texts in Sanskrit). Kashmir has lush green valleys,  mountains, rivers, glaciers and plains.  

克什米尔被称为人间天堂。因爱尔兰诗人托马斯·摩尔(Thomas Moore)在他1817年的浪漫主义诗歌《拉拉·鲁克》(Lalla Rookh)中描写成了天堂一样的地方,克什米尔成了英语国家社会中一个家喻户晓的名字。克什米尔有郁郁葱葱的山谷、山脉、河流、冰川和平原。

Dispute 

After the Partition of India in 1947, the former princely state of the British Indian Empire became a disputed territory, now administered by three countries: India, Pakistan, and China.  According to Burton Stein's History of India, "Kashmir was neither as large nor as old an independent state as Hyderabad; it had been created rather off-handedly by the British after the first defeat of the Sikhs in 1846, as a reward  to a former official who had sided with the British. The Himalayan kingdom was connected to  India through a district of the Punjab, but its population was 77 per cent Muslim and it shared a  boundary with Pakistan. Hence, it was anticipated that the maharaja would accede to Pakistan  when the British paramountcy ended on 14–15 August. When he hesitated to do this, Pakistan  launched a guerrilla onslaught meant to frighten its ruler into submission. Instead the Maharaja  appealed to Mountbatten for assistance, and the governor-general agreed on the condition that  the ruler accede to India. Indian soldiers entered Kashmir and drove the Pakistani-sponsored  irregulars from all but a small section of the state. The United Nations was then invited to  mediate the quarrel. The UN mission insisted that the opinion of Kashmiris must be ascertained,  while India insisted that no referendum could occur until all of the state had been cleared of  irregulars." 

争端

1947年印度分治后,这里成了一片有争议的领土,现在由三个国家管理:印度、巴基斯坦和中国。根据Burton Stein的印度史,“克什米尔既没有海得拉巴那么大,也没有海得拉巴那么古老;1846英国人创立了这个地方,用来奖励当时帮助英国战胜锡克教徒的一位官员(其实是汉奸)。喜马拉雅王国通过旁遮普的一个地区与印度相连,但其人口中77%是穆斯林,与巴基斯坦接壤。因此,大众预计这个王公会在8月14日至15日(也是印巴分治的日子,巴基斯坦和印度的国庆节)英国统治结束时加入巴基斯坦。巴基斯坦人有点猴急,在当他犹豫不决时,发动了游击队袭击,本想着恐吓一下,让他屈服,没曾想到,王公向蒙巴顿总督求助,总督同意了他加入印度。印度士兵进入克什米尔,将巴基斯坦支持的游击队赶出该邦的一小部分地区。联合国介入,提议由克什米尔人来觉得加入哪一边,也就是公投,而印度则坚持认为,要先把游击队全部剿灭,不然不可能举行全民公决。”

In the last days of 1948, a ceasefire was agreed under UN auspices. However, since the plebiscite demanded by the UN was never conducted, relations between India and Pakistan  soured, and eventually led to two more wars over Kashmir in 1965 and 1999. 

1948年的最后几天,在联合国主持下达成了停火协议。然而,由于联合国要求的公投从未进行过,自从留下了祸根,战争的火苗从未熄灭。印度和巴基斯坦之间的关系恶化,最终导致1965年和1999年针对克什米尔的两次战争。到如今,两国还是不断有摩擦,不断有战火。

Azad (Free) Kashmir 

The Pakistani administered Kashmir is called Azad Kashmir, while the Indian administered  Kashmir is called Occupied Kashmir by the people of Pakistan. Interestingly the Chinese  administered Kashmir is not talked about by Pakistani people and government.  

阿扎德(自由)克什米尔

巴基斯坦管理的克什米尔被称为阿扎德克什米尔,而印度管理的克什米尔被巴基斯坦人称为被占领的克什米尔。有趣的是,巴基斯坦人和政府并未对中国管理的克什米尔有任何异议。

I will write about the Kashmir issue in detail some other time, today I will take you on a journey  the Kashmir valley in Pakistan. 

我将在其他一些时候详细地写克什米尔问题,今天我想带你去看看巴基斯坦的克什米尔山谷。

After having breakfast in Islamabad, we left for Rawalakot in Kashmir. It takes 3 to 5 hours by  road from Islamabad. We took a longer way via Muree because the other route from Kahuta has  areas prone to land sliding. River Jehlam acts as a natural boundary between Punjab and  Kashmir. We stopped at Kohala bridge, on Jehlam river to enjoy the cold water of Jehlam river  and have a tea. The locals have placed charpai (beds) along the river under the shades. The river  water was sweet and thirst quencher. The tea tasted good with half of our legs covered in cold  water.  

当天在伊斯兰堡吃完早餐后,我们出发前往Rawalkot。从伊斯兰堡到这开车大概要3-5小时。我们从Muree走,因为其他路可能会有塌方。Jehlam河是旁遮普和克什米尔的分界线。我们在Kohala桥下停留,坐在浸泡在河水中的床上,享受着从伊斯兰堡逃离的炎热,脚下是冰凉的河水,茶杯里的热茶更好喝了。

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Restaurants have sitting places besides the river and somewhere inside the smaller portion of  river. 

餐馆坐落在河边,也坐落在水里。

Across the Jehlam River the beautiful valley of Kashmir starts, with fruit trees, corn fields,  sunflower fields and pine tree covered mountains.  

跨过Jehlam河后,美丽的克什米尔就开始了,一路上的水果树、玉米地、葵花籽以及松鼠覆盖了连绵起伏的山峰。


Dense tree covered mountains, with river flowing in the valley. We stopped by a walnut tree full of fresh walnut beside the road to enjoy the walnuts.