首页 - 研究成果



字号 【  关闭
The Kashmir is called the heaven on earth. Irish poet Thomas Moore's 1817 romantic poem Lalla  Rookh is credited with having made Kashmir (spelt Cashmere in the poem) "a household term in  Anglophone (English speaking) societies", conveying the idea that it was a kind of paradise (an  old idea going back to Hindu and Buddhist texts in Sanskrit). Kashmir has lush green valleys,  mountains, rivers, glaciers and plains.  

克什米尔被称为人间天堂。因爱尔兰诗人托马斯·摩尔(Thomas Moore)在他1817年的浪漫主义诗歌《拉拉·鲁克》(Lalla Rookh)中描写成了天堂一样的地方,克什米尔成了英语国家社会中一个家喻户晓的名字。克什米尔有郁郁葱葱的山谷、山脉、河流、冰川和平原。
After the Partition of India in 1947, the former princely state of the British Indian Empire became a disputed territory, now administered by three countries: India, Pakistan, and China.  According to Burton Stein's History of India, "Kashmir was neither as large nor as old an independent state as Hyderabad; it had been created rather off-handedly by the British after the first defeat of the Sikhs in 1846, as a reward  to a former official who had sided with the British. The Himalayan kingdom was connected to  India through a district of the Punjab, but its population was 77 per cent Muslim and it shared a  boundary with Pakistan. Hence, it was anticipated that the maharaja would accede to Pakistan  when the British paramountcy ended on 14–15 August. When he hesitated to do this, Pakistan  launched a guerrilla onslaught meant to frighten its ruler into submission. Instead the Maharaja  appealed to Mountbatten for assistance, and the governor-general agreed on the condition that  the ruler accede to India. Indian soldiers entered Kashmir and drove the Pakistani-sponsored  irregulars from all but a small section of the state. The United Nations was then invited to  mediate the quarrel. The UN mission insisted that the opinion of Kashmiris must be ascertained,  while India insisted that no referendum could occur until all of the state had been cleared of  irregulars." 
1947年印度分治后,这里成了一片有争议的领土,现在由三个国家管理:印度、巴基斯坦和中国。根据Burton Stein的印度史,“克什米尔既没有海得拉巴那么大,也没有海得拉巴那么古老;1846英国人创立了这个地方,用来奖励当时帮助英国战胜锡克教徒的一位官员(其实是汉奸)。喜马拉雅王国通过旁遮普的一个地区与印度相连,但其人口中77%是穆斯林,与巴基斯坦接壤。因此,大众预计这个王公会在8月14日至15日(也是印巴分治的日子,巴基斯坦和印度的国庆节)英国统治结束时加入巴基斯坦。巴基斯坦人有点猴急,在当他犹豫不决时,发动了游击队袭击,本想着恐吓一下,让他屈服,没曾想到,王公向蒙巴顿总督求助,总督同意了他加入印度。印度士兵进入克什米尔,将巴基斯坦支持的游击队赶出该邦的一小部分地区。联合国介入,提议由克什米尔人来觉得加入哪一边,也就是公投,而印度则坚持认为,要先把游击队全部剿灭,不然不可能举行全民公决。”
In the last days of 1948, a ceasefire was agreed under UN auspices. However, since the plebiscite demanded by the UN was never conducted, relations between India and Pakistan  soured, and eventually led to two more wars over Kashmir in 1965 and 1999. 
Azad (Free) Kashmir 
The Pakistani administered Kashmir is called Azad Kashmir, while the Indian administered  Kashmir is called Occupied Kashmir by the people of Pakistan. Interestingly the Chinese  administered Kashmir is not talked about by Pakistani people and government.  
I will write about the Kashmir issue in detail some other time, today I will take you on a journey  the Kashmir valley in Pakistan. 
After having breakfast in Islamabad, we left for Rawalakot in Kashmir. It takes 3 to 5 hours by  road from Islamabad. We took a longer way via Muree because the other route from Kahuta has  areas prone to land sliding. River Jehlam acts as a natural boundary between Punjab and  Kashmir. We stopped at Kohala bridge, on Jehlam river to enjoy the cold water of Jehlam river  and have a tea. The locals have placed charpai (beds) along the river under the shades. The river  water was sweet and thirst quencher. The tea tasted good with half of our legs covered in cold  water.  

Restaurants have sitting places besides the river and somewhere inside the smaller portion of  river. 
Across the Jehlam River the beautiful valley of Kashmir starts, with fruit trees, corn fields,  sunflower fields and pine tree covered mountains.  
Dense tree covered mountains, with river flowing in the valley. We stopped by a walnut tree full of fresh walnut beside the road to enjoy the walnuts. 
Walnut Tree 

Fresh Walnut 

Our first destination was a place named Suddhan Gali. It’s a small village with seemingly more guest houses than the local houses. There is a stark contrast between the local’s residence and  the rest houses. The rest house we stayed was a three story building with carpeted rooms and clean environment. The locals are poor but very hospitable. A lady working in her small field saw  my mother and invited us to her home. She told us that her husband works at a petrol pump in  Rawalpindi and she is living with her son. Her son goes to public school which is free. Few years  back the earthquake leveled her home, and they have to construct all over. 

我们的第一个目的地是一个名叫Suddhan Gali的地方。这是一个小村庄,招待所的数量似乎比当地人家的房子还多。当地居民的住宅与其他住宅形成了鲜明的对比。我们住的房子是一栋三层楼高的建筑,房间铺着地毯,环境干净。当地人很穷,但很好客。一位在她的小田里工作的女士看到了我母亲,邀请我们去她家。她告诉我们,她的丈夫在拉瓦尔品第的一家加油站工作,她和儿子住在一起。她儿子上的公立学校是免费的。几年前,地震把她的家夷为平地,他们不得不重新再建房子。

Few woods for winter 
A small patch of corn 
A small one room house 

Left is a small housing for chicken, on right a small room for a buffalo. 

They hardly had any useful piece of land for growing. Big bungalows in cities like Lahore DHA  may have more lawns than their farmland, yet they offered us a very tasty tea (no milk). The  lady also offered to eat from her as long as we are staying there, we told her we have our own stove for cooking, on our refusal she said at least she can cook the chapati for us. 
 From this place 7km away there is a highest peak around 10000 ft ~ 3000 meters. There is a  road leading to the mountain, where you can camp and climb the mountain yourself or hire a  horse to ride up the top. 
Wild horses can be seen enjoying the sunshine 

Camping site 
A makeshift toilet for visitors  
The camps had Chinese written on them :P 

Locals collect the garbage voluntarily to keep the area clean. Tourist from all background come  here, and many of them are uncultured when it comes to garbage. 
There were a lot variety of small flowers on the top. 
Panoramic view near the top. The horses drop until this place. Rest have to climb ourself Some views from the top.

Two young girls with a guide climb all they way to the top on foot. Young climbers in making. 
An eco friendly mobile shop on the mountain 

Back to the parking area 
Many people also travel on bikes. There are groups on facebook for people who travel across  Pakistan on bikes, they can guide you and also post their adventure. They even post the must  carry items list for bikers. Bikes can go even where the Jeeps can’t go, also its much cheaper. 
Even cheaper than the public transport. Fuel cost of only 3 Rs per Km for a single person. And if  two persons sharing a bike it comes to 1.5 Rs per Km per person.  
Banjosa Lake 
Banjosa Lake is an artificial lake and a tourist resort 18 kilometers (11 mi) from the city of  Rawalakot in Poonch District of Azad Kashmir, Pakistan. It is located at an altitude of 1,981  meters (6,499 ft). The lake is surrounded by dense pine forest and mountains, which make it  charming and romantic.  
The weather in the area remains cool in Summers and cold in Winter. In December and January  snowfall also occurs here and the temperature falls to -5°C. During Summer, the temperature  remains 16°C to 25°C. 
From the lake, we climbed up the mountain to a small market place (a few shops), the view was  incredible with thick grass covering the rocky road and the surroundings and the thick blanket of  pine trees makes it harder to find a bare patch of ground. 
Morning dew glittering like diamonds 

Dense forest surrounding the guest house and lake

Lake Banjosa 

Visitors and families enjoying the few motor boats available 
A beautiful sunset 
Old rocky track now covered in grass gives a cinematic view.